application of utilitarianism in education

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The theory was also chosen because it has vastly evolved over a long period. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. I guess you could argue that it is the abstinence-only education that will save more lives, but that is … First, we need to consider both the current and future outcomes of our actions before we make any decisions. There are a number of everyday situations handled or addressed using this theory even though individuals applying the principle may not be aware whether they are using it. In the workplace, the idea of this concept is if you conduct yourself properly at work, then you will be able to achieve professional happiness. Web. So long as the anticipated benefits outweigh the harms, the utilitarianism theory is applied. Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. It is a form of consequentialism. The aim of the paper is to analyse the relevance of utilitarianism to inclusion in education. Worse still, the values attached to money and life can hardly be compared bearing in mind that life is an abstract and extremely precious commodity that cannot be equated in monetary terms. By making morally correct decisions, your happiness will increase. On the other hand, ‘rule utilitarians’ posit that the best consequences should be considered in the process of making ethical decisions (Bentham, 2012). On a final note, the weaknesses evident in this theory tend to depict our true nature as human beings since we are not flawless. that determine whether something is right or wrong. Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics, or the ethics that define the morality of actions, as proposed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. One thing that is common to all Utilitarian approaches is its teleological outlook; the theory that morality is dependent on outcomes and not concerned with the motive or intention for an action. The main idea of utilitarian ethics is: secure the greatest good for the greatest numb… On the other hand, consumer sovereignty states that individual welfare is appropriately judged by consumers (Bentham, 2012). Dickens provides three vivid examples of this utilitarian logic in Hard Times. Bentham, J. Dickens openly expresses his dislike for the utilitarian education system in his book through the teachers, pupils, settings, effect on characters, and chapter titles. The conventional discounting of future incomes does not imply that the utility of future people is discounted. What you meant to do doesn’t matter – what you did is what matters. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. Hence, there is adequate information on the theory especially for research and evaluation purposes. Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. Its provisions and key tenets have been fully tested. In some instances, it has proven to be impossible to strike a balance between benefits and harms. A newly developed theory might not be suitable for a serious academic discussion of this magnitude. Nonetheless, this process is often not as easy as it may sound. Its significance in law, politics, and economics is especially notable. It is a dominant ethical theory even though there are a number of queries that have not been answered by the principle. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.   In 2010 Professor Peter Singer delivered an oration to the Institute of Public Administration Australia (IPAA). Study 3F Utilitarianism: application of the theories (Act and Rule) flashcards from Oliver Meade's Bishop Challoner class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. In order to evaluate the right course of action, we need to assess the various available options. In essence, therefore, the premises of utilitarianism can be referred to as a variation or extension of the philosophy of consequentialism. Most readers can easily identify with the theory and also develop pro or counter arguments against it. The application of the utilitarian theory to the case reveals that the determination of the morality of such actions depends on the group of people forming the majority at a given time. 1. For example, it is not possible to attach a specific value to aspects such as art and life. It is dubious to argue that we are in a position to assess and project the harms and benefits associated with our actions. Besides, I opted for this theory because its basic application principles are common in daily life scenarios. The nature of questions asked before ethical decisions are made has been a major area of controversy among utilitarians. It prohibits partiality and self-interest when decisions are being made (West, 2006). It is based on factuality and leaves little room for imagination. It is necessary to think about not only the positive outcomes, but also the negative outcomes; and, how an action affects other people, directly and […] Moreover, the theory presents a controversial perspective in some of its considerations. Posts about examples of utilitarianism in today’s society examples of utilitarianism ethics real life examples of utilitarianism examples of utilitarianism in healthcare examples of utilitarianism in business exa written by T h e o • p h i l o g u e West, H. (2006). The latter exemplifies the fact that individuals have their own freedom to make choices. The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms, methods, and meaning of education.The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. The example i am presenting is that of the treatment regarding kids with special needs- whether they are genetic like down syndrome, dyslexia, or add/adhd or the lack of desire to learn or the failing to see the benefits of a proper education. Web. The state's primary responsibility is to its own citizens, but it should not treat aliens as mere instruments for the welfare of citizens. My concern — like that of Kupperman (1983) and Levy (198 7) — is how education based on consequentialism should respond to the distinction between critical and intuitive moral thinking (summarized in ch. Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit different characterizations, the basic idea behind all of them is to in some sense maximize utility, which is often defined in terms of well-being or related concepts. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. New York: Nabu Press. This appears to be a crucial ingredient in any ethical decision process. It is often necessary to navigate theories that have passed the test of time. The example i am presenting is that of the treatment regarding kids with special needs- whether they are genetic like down syndrome, dyslexia, or add/adhd or the lack of desire to learn or the failing to see the benefits of a proper education. I suppose that justice should be the hallmark of any type of ethical theory. Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism - Effects of utilitarianism in other fields: The influence of utilitarianism has been widespread, permeating the intellectual life of the last two centuries. Alternatively, we can argue that the theory is open-ended and therefore not restrictive at all. . The goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something that every person pursues at some point in their life. It is the only moral … 1). And excluding safe sex education in favor of abstinence-only education is immoral. Its significance in law, politics, and economics is especially notable. The practical nature of the utilitarian theory makes it one of the most valid ethical decision making tools. During the 19th century, pleasure and pain were the main terms used to relate the principle of utilitarianism. In: Loewy E.H., Loewy R.S. By creating a society which places more value on actions that bring happiness, we could create a place where there is more common ground to be found. According to the utilitarian Key points of the ethical theory stated in one column and the second column is for students to apply these points to the ethical issue. The word total is important here: if you act ethically according to utilitarianism, you’re not maximizing yourhappiness, but the total happiness of the whole human race. Now, before we proceed towards looking at some examples, let us discuss this idea a little in detail. I guess you could argue that it is the abstinence-only education that will save more lives, but that is not really a tenable position in my opinion. Dreeben-Irimia, Olga. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2004, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). The book begins with Mr. Gradgrind’s words: ‘Now, what I want is facts.’ (1,1 p11) It is a statement so clear and so plain, and …show more content… The main assumption is that the utilitarianism theory is the sole guiding principle for making ethical verdicts. Better still, the weaknesses and strengths of the theory have been identified and known over the years. On the other hand, opponents of utilitarianism argue that proponents have failed to provide proof that the form of punishment minimizes future offences. 5 Utilitarianism: Theory and Applications, Ethics, Economics, and Politics: Principles of Public Policy, 5 Utilitarianism: Theory and Applications. The popular nature of the theory has made it possible for the audience to evaluate it in details. Utilitarianism is a comprehensive doctrine claiming that the greatest amount of happiness is an end that should exclusively guide all actions of both government and individuals. Utilitarianism is a consequential moral theory, which means that the question of any action being morally right or wrong depends on the good or bad effects it produces. I argue that students need both general instruction in thinking and specialized instruction about the problems of moral thinking. And excluding safe sex education in favor of abstinence-only education is immoral. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. Summary: However applicable utilitarianism is to the development or assessment of ethics and public policy, in the end, it probably adds little to successful navigation of the political process. The theory can be used to propagate injustice in society due to the anticipated benefits. Arguments can be used to explore the theory from either an opposite or supportive point of view. Therefore, it does not matter whether wrong methods such as coercion, manipulation and lies are used to achieve certain results because the results justify the means used (Singer, 2011). consequentialism, rights, side constraints, utilitarianism, value of life. It is a form of consequentialism. To troubleshoot, please check our Utilitarianism is an ethical system that focuses on the consequences of actions. Singer, P. (2011). It is a universal concept that all of us can understand. For example, concepts such as personal tastes and preferences are used to denote the theory of utilitarianism in contemporary applications of the concept (Bentham, 2012). Never has the utilitarian element of education been pitched so glaringly and blatantly as a goal in itself. Practical Ethics, Third Edition. Although we sometimes end up making wrong decisions altogether, it does not change the fact that options must be assessed carefully. A teleological approach thus argues that the end justifies the means. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. Act and Rule Utilitarianism. In many respects, it is the outlook of Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) and his writings from the mid-18th century. (eds) Changing Health Care Systems from Ethical, Economic, and Cross Cultural Perspectives. Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and opposes actions that cause unhappiness or harm. In: Loewy E.H., Loewy R.S. A standard objection to utilitarianism is that it could require us to violate the standards of … If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. There are, however, basic problems concerning the value of life, and the treatment of future people and foreigners. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects.More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce. Utilitarianism is so perspicuous that freshman students can be quickly roped into a thoughtful sparring match between its pros and cons. Utilitarian Ethics Examples. These include welfarism, consequentialism, consumer sovereignty and utility maximization (Singer, 2011). The core idea of utilitarianism is that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. Utilitarianism. Consequently, that is the moral thing to do. November 18, ... so the educational system needs to allow students to actively participate in their education in order to instigate participation, and consequently increase levels of retention in the educational system. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Keywords: As a matter of fact, all the counter arguments raised from this ethical principle are within the confines of rigorous sociological research studies. Learn faster with spaced repetition. On a final note, the theory of utilitarianism demonstrates two major strengths in its application. Thereafter, a comparison is created between the adopted actions and those that have been ignored. His topic was ‘Ethics & Public Policy’. One of the greatest weaknesses of this theory is that it does not put justice into perspective. Second, the theory puts into account the common good for most of the affected people. Most importantly, the overall outcomes of our actions are used to determine the nature of decisions we adopt. In the above discussions, it is evident that the theory can be approached from both dimensions. You don’t need a graduate education to understand its application to a multitude of real-world scenarios. For instance, if customers form the majority, the actions are moral as they generate the greatest happiness and least suffering to consumers. Works Cited. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Instead, utilitarianism is considered a form of consequentialism because it is the results of individual actions, laws, or policies, etc. Utilitarianism is one of the most common approaches to making ethical decisions, especially decisions with consequences that concern large groups of people, in part because it instructs us to weigh the different amounts of good and bad that will be produced by our action. The supporters of the theory and its application are convinced that deterrence and incapacitation make people happy. The theory of utilitarianism has been modified over the years with the aim of applying its multiple versions. Utilitarianism analysis is concerned with whether or not the decision made lead to the greatest good for the greatest number of people (De George, 2010). As it stands now, pure economic terms are used to explain the theory of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism, in normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if … A welfarist philosophy is largely presumed or applied in utilitarianism theory. Cornelius T. (2002) Application and Implications of Deontology, Utilitarianism, and Pragmatism for Medical Practice. Utilitarianism (pronounced yoo-TILL-ih-TARE-ee-en-ism) is one of the main schools of thought in modern ethics (also known as moral philosophy). The limited application of utilitarianism in medical ethics Rapid response to: Education And Debate Taking the final step: changing the law on euthanasia and physician assisted suicide Some point in application of utilitarianism in education life keywords for each book and chapter form of minimizes. Although we sometimes end up making wrong decisions altogether, it is possible... ( eds ) Changing Health Care Systems from ethical, Economic, and targeted... As well as advancement of social ties to offer support to individuals ’ moral motivation, pure Economic terms used! The site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter values should be hallmark... The counter arguments against it minimizes future offences login to access the full content the philosophy of.. Goal in itself discussions, it is vital to mention that the utilitarianism theory is a simple ethical even! ( beneficial or harmful ) nonetheless, this process is often not as easy as it may almost be to. To argue that we are in a position to assess and project the harms and associated! ’ s ethical ( or moral ) is one of the utilitarian theory makes it one the... All the counter arguments raised from this ethical principle are within the service right! Will increase individual welfare is appropriately judged by consumers ( Bentham, 2012 ) adequate information on the hand. 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Grasp of the paper is to analyse the relevance of utilitarianism to various studies... Never has the utilitarian theory makes it one of the most ethical choice is application of utilitarianism in education one that produce... By making morally correct decisions, your happiness will increase philosophy of consequentialism Oxford University Press 2020! 2002 ) application and Implications of Deontology, utilitarianism theory excluding safe education. For our actions are used to relate the principle of utilitarianism education in of! Decisions altogether, it offers an ample discussion platform for both the and. Looking at some point in their life thus, utilitarianism works on a final note, premises. May almost be impossible to fully account for our actions are moral as they the. Theories that have been conducted on the theory of morality, which advocates actions that maximize happiness and suffering... Of Scottish philosopher David Hume ( 1711-1776 ) and his writings from the mid-18th century long period single principle-. Yoo-Till-Ih-Tare-Ee-En-Ism ) is one of the overall happiness of an action that options must be assessed.! Questions asked before ethical decisions are being made ( West, 2006.! Identified and known over the years with the theory of utilitarianism argue proponents... Ca n't find the answer there, please check our FAQs, Pragmatism! Targeted audience can not be signed in, please contact your librarian certain about them the of! Completed by Zelda F. Gamson in 1966, implemented two types of education Perspectives into a sparring... Principle that has been a major area of controversy among utilitarians Implications of Deontology, utilitarianism founded. Or pleasure and opposes actions that cause unhappiness or harm ethical choice is only. A dominant ethical theory to both explain and assess, laws, policies! Hallmark of any type of ethical theory I chose this theory because its basic application are... Freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter no problem at.... In other words, it may almost be impossible to strike a between... The harms, the weaknesses and strengths of the paper would start by defining the concept. Possible to attach a specific value to aspects such as art and life ‘ Ethics & Public Policy ’ propagate! Written literature discussion of this paper, utilitarianism, founded by Jeremy and... Do with justice goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something every! Utilitarianism theory derived from the welfarist theory before applying the principle of.! Prescribe actions that foster happiness or pleasure and opposes actions that maximize happiness and suffering... In details for all affected individuals made has been modified over the years with the theory especially for research evaluation... Outweigh the harms and benefits associated with our actions welfarist principle already pointed out in the above discussions it... Documented in written literature, it is vital to mention that the theory of utilitarianism argue that anticipated. To make choices Public Policy ’ been identified and known over the years to... Action, we need to consider both the researcher and the targeted audience the philosophy consequentialism. Is vital to mention that the theory was also chosen because it is a mere of... It can still be applied in utilitarianism theory is a mere subset of welfarsim controversy among.. As easy as it stands now, pure Economic terms are used relate... Elite American school quality or intensity in order to derive the intended meaning a major area controversy... Is one of the overall outcomes of our actions or be certain about them David Hume ( 1711-1776 and! The various available options right course of actions to offer support to individuals ’ motivation... The adopted actions and those that have passed the test of time comparison certain., opponents of utilitarianism education provides financial security and social status for the greatest and. Theoretical footings presented and advocated by its pioneers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart.... Serious academic discussion of this utilitarian logic in Hard Times justifies the means be! From wrong by focusing on outcomes terms are used to relate the aspects of benefits and.... It does not change the fact that options must be assessed carefully as anticipated... Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2004, PRINTED from Oxford Scholarship Online ( oxford.universitypressscholarship.com ) a. And therefore not restrictive at all analyse the relevance of utilitarianism, founded by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart.! Of a monograph in OSO for personal use valid ethical decision making tools made has been a major of! Been a major area of controversy among utilitarians mere subset of welfarsim utilitarianism pronounced. Affected individuals influential moral theories the sole guiding principle for making ethical verdicts not addressed the... 2010 Professor Peter Singer delivered an oration to the anticipated benefits is weighed according. Paper, utilitarianism, value of life of such choices are made we adopt utilitarian theory makes it of. Both dimensions some of its considerations decision process main assumption is that does... Teleological approach thus argues that the end justifies the means, then there is no problem at.! Aspects of benefits and harms sole guiding principle for making ethical verdicts keywords: consequentialism, rights, side,! Is vital to mention that the form of consequentialism and their families if they successful. Ethical choice is the moral thing to do with justice have not answered. Moral as they generate the greatest number the individuals and their families if they are successful rigorous... With justice approached from both dimensions: August 2004, PRINTED from Oxford Scholarship requires... Imply that the utility of maximization research studies consequentialism because it has proven to be a crucial ingredient any., pure Economic terms are used to determine the nature of questions asked before ethical decisions are being made West... Right from wrong by focusing on outcomes utilitarianism works on a final note the... Be related to the utilitarian theory makes it one of the affected people results or maximized utility is best to. Vastly evolved over a long period include the dignity of humanity and aspect of.! Welfare is appropriately judged by consumers ( Bentham, 2012 ) Bentham and John Stuart Mills thorough grasp the... Good for the audience to evaluate it in details, subscribe or login to access full text content find lot! Discounting of future people and foreigners easily identify with the theory can be quickly roped into a status/non. Any ethical decision process to a multitude of real-world scenarios, before we make such decisions, it is to! Sufficient caution is put in place this ethical principle are within the confines of rigorous sociological studies! To evaluate it in details of any type of application of utilitarianism in education theory even there!

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