basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf

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Fortunately, electrical circuit troubleshooting is an activity that works well for small groups of students to engage in as well as individual students. To troubleshoot, you simply follow logical, step-by-step procedures to arrive at a solution. This is a common mistake students make when applying the “divide-and-conquer” method of troubleshooting: that whatever component(s) located between the point of good measurement and the point of bad measurement must be the source of the problem. Components known to be okay include the left speaker, left speaker cable, and power cord for the amplifier. Your co-worker’s strategy is based on the principle of dividing the gas pipeline into halves, and checking for pressure at the half-way point. One day, when the heating technicians are on-site doing checks of the gas furnaces in each new house, they report that the last house in the neighborhood does not have natural gas. An electrician is troubleshooting a faulty light circuit, where the power source and light bulb are far removed from one another: As you can see in the diagram, there are several terminal blocks (“TB”) through which electrical power is routed to the light bulb. Scenario #2, outcome #1: problem is not in the microphone. By the way, this type of question is excellent for a written test! The piping is installed, of course, but when they turn the gas valve on nothing comes out. Also, discuss whether this concludes the diagnostic procedures, or if there is more troubleshooting left to do. A new residential neighborhood is being built, and you are working as a member of the construction crew. Create one now. As you look around the job site, you notice that no one is using welder #2. At a construction site, workers have used power extension cords to create a “network” of power cabling for their various electric tools. Language: English Format: Online PDF Size: 60.3 Mb Your more adept students will immediately recognize that scenarios 1 and 2 are really quite the same. A simple electric circuit is shown in Fig. As an illustration of this principle, you might want to elaborate on your own experiences as an electronics instructor. Remember that the speaker cables detach easily from the speakers and from the amplifier. About the Author: Warren Rhude is president of Simutech Multimedia Inc. an e-learning company that develops computer based training simulations for electrical troubleshooting. All the other tools continue to function properly (including all the radios, which is very fortunate because the workers become irritable without their music). interconnection of electrical devices. Experienced technicians have developed a method for troubleshooting. Read the following description of an experienced troubleshooter diagnosing an automotive electrical problem, and match the troubleshooter’s steps to those five steps previously described for scientific method: Explain which of the three hypotheses was confirmed by the voltmeter’s reading, and how the mechanic was able to know this. Now, of course, it is possible that both the worklight and the saw suffered independent, simultaneous failures, and all the extension cords are good, but this is not very likely. æåËŠ“ÁdÚNÓá¡T‘È$¿¹tËVoÂãüŸ"oBa2~1˜ŽTlÆîᤃ |oÝÎÚ´{ðùظÙÄ´ÎMGÓ7³n2„ÙëÉññìß]¹àL|³³-¾×–Ëçêg9WÞçQ£&Ð= Adopting a logical and systematic approach such as the 5 Step Troubleshooting Approach can help you to troubleshoot like an expert! This seems especially true when students answer troubleshooting questions on written exams. The amplifier was damaged at a recent party, when one of your friend’s guests turned up the volume to full and left it there until smoke billowed out of the power amplifier chassis. Swap the non-working bulb for one of the other four working bulbs, and see if the problem moves with the bulb. BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS •ACTIVE DEVICES – devices or components which requires external source to their operation. Two things I recommend, though: Discuss with your students both probable causes of this problem as well as strategies for locating the problem. Basic Electronic Troubleshooting Techniques. However, before you step out of the room to go do this, one of your co-workers suggests you start your search at the middle point of the pipeline instead: at the location of valve #4. Describe a procedure for determining the location of the problem (chandelier vs. bulb), without using any electrical test instruments. Then suddenly both the worklight and the circular saw in the lower-right corner of the illustration stop working. Aug 31, 2016 - How to wire your car from scratch. The terminal blocks are located too far apart to allow for voltage checks between blocks (say, between one connection in TB2 and another connection in TB3). Ensure you take the proper precautions. For instance, shorted wiring located far from the equipment enclosure may have caused the components to destruct. This is a common assumption made by beginning troubleshooters: that the most obvious failure is the only failure, or that it must be the primary failure. What I want is for you to think in general terms: how might the scope of possible problems differ between any two similar systems, one of which is proven while the other is untried? The unexpected behavior exhibited by the circuit is due to improper locating or soldering of components, component damage due to aging, faults, overheat, and so on. This simple troubleshooting technique is applicable to a wide variety of electrical, electronic, and other types of systems: swap the suspect component with an identical component known to be functional, and see observe whether or not the problem changes location. The studio engineer will use the individual controls on the mixer to “blend” the inputs for the best recording tone and quality. Although the symptoms in each system are very similar, the histories of the two systems are not. A music recording studio is equipped with three microphones, each of which connect to the “mixer” panel by means of shielded cables: The purpose of the mixer is to function as a multi-channel audio signal amplifier, to control the volume of each sound channel so that a good “mix” is obtained for recording. Describes and illustrates techniques for troubleshooting electrical and electronic circuits with a focus on control circuits and motors. There, the damage is visually apparent: both of the power transistors for the left channel output are burnt beyond recognition. When actually working on real circuits, students seem more likely to first look for simple causes. Nearly anyone who is familiar with basic electronic theory can learn troubleshooting techniques and fix many types of electronic failures. Electrical Troubleshooting October 2006 PASSAGEMAKER 103 of locations throughout his electrical system. It consists of three basic elements: a battery, a lamp, and connecting wires. Basic Electrical Engineering Pdf Free Download | BEE Notes Pdf. Explain why your co-worker’s idea is better, and also what your next step would be if: (a) you did find pressure at that point, and (b) if you did not find pressure at that point. UNIT-VI D.C. Motors : Principle of operation of dc motors, types of DC Motors. TYPE (BASIC) They follow certain logical steps when looking for a defect in a piece of equipment. One of the most common troubleshooting techniques taught to technicians is the so-called “divide and conquer” method, whereby the system or signal path is divided into halves with each measurement, until the location of the fault is pinpointed. This troubleshooting strategy is sometimes referred to as the “divide-and-conquer” method, because it divides the system into small sections to optimize troubleshooting time and effort. Since garden hoses easily detach from spigots and nozzles alike, they lend themselves well to the so-called “divide-and-conquer” method of troubleshooting. Understanding basic electricity can be invaluable in both safety, as well as when troubleshooting and repairing an electrical circuit. UNIT-V D.C. generators: Principle of operation of dc machines, types of DC GENERAtors., e.m.f equation in a dc generator. Switching the power cables back to their original receptacles doesn’t make things better, either. You unsolder the transistors from the circuit board and unscrew them from the heat sink, but you cannot read the part numbers on their cases due to the thermal damage. Don't have an AAC account? He then swapped speakers and speaker wires, and consistently found that whatever speaker was plugged into the left channel did not make sound, but the speaker plugged into the right channel always did. Explain how you might go about troubleshooting this problem, using no test equipment whatsoever. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Electricity has long been recognized as a serious workplace hazard, exposing employees to electric shock, electrocution, burns, fires and explosions. An electrician is troubleshooting a faulty light circuit, where the power source and light bulb are far removed from one another: AC voltage source TB1 TB2 TB5 TB4 TB6 TB3 Light As you can see in the diagram, there are several terminal blocks (”TB”) through which electrical … These terminal blocks provide convenient connection points to join wires together, enabling sections of wire to be removed and replaced if necessary, without removing and replacing all the wiring. basic electrical theory & troubleshooting. How do you (and the mechanic) know? Scenario #4, outcome #1: the problem is not in the cable. Despite the undeniable power of the “swap interchangeable components” strategy, it is not fool-proof. Identify the most likely location of the fault in this system, and explain why the ßwap interchangeable components” strategy got you into trouble. Discuss with your students the relationship between the mechanic’s steps and the steps given for scientific method. So if you know two of the three characteristics, your can calculate the third one. Ohm’s Law is the basic formula used in all AC and DC electrical circuits. When in doubt, never hesitate to ask a certified mechanic for help. When assisting students with lab projects, what typical problems do you encounter with the circuits they build, and how do these problems typically differ from problems you’ve seen in real-life electronic equipment? safetyis the most important thing. electricity can kill you! What error did the technician make in concluding the upper resistor must have been failed open? Once students have successfully identified the mechanic’s reasoning, ask them to explain how the prediction of noise rhythm distinguishes which part of the bicycle is making the noise. Take advantage of this course called The Complete Windows Network Troubleshooting Guide to improve your Networking skills and better understand Network Troubleshooting.. Each one is identical to the other at the circuit level, because each channel is expected to perform exactly the same. At a construction site, several electric “arc” welders are plugged into 480 volt receptacles. However, there are some situations where it might actually save time to perform measurements in a linear progression (from one end to the other, until the power or signal is lost). Each receptacle has its own safety disconnect switch and fuse overcurrent protection: You, as an electronics technician working at the job site, happen to be walking past these welders when one of the welding personnel stops you to ask for help. An electric circuitis an interconnection of electrical elements. Gauges, lights, lights, circuit breakers and more. Follow-up question: upon further investigation, you locate the charred remains of an electronic component, located on one of the system’s circuit boards. Efficient troubleshooters never limit themselves to a rigid methodology if other methods are more efficient. Read the part numbers off the power transistors for the right channel output! The technician wrongly assumed that an open (upper) resistor was the only possible fault that could have caused the observed voltage readings. You may answer this objection by appealing to the indistinguishable sound of the two channels, when listened to separately (mono). Be sure to discuss this possibility with your students, and the reasoning why the one extension cord would be more likely to be faulted than two separate devices. The voltmeter’s test leads are only long enough to check for voltage between pairs of connections at each terminal block. All the other channels are working just fine, though. A friend of yours brings you their damaged stereo amplifier, hoping that perhaps you would be able to repair it cheaper than the local electronics repair shop. ... 49:30 – Advanced Troubleshooting Techniques for Two-Wire Systems Overview . What about the electrician’s choice of steps - do you think the voltage measurements taken were performed in the most efficient sequence, or would you recommend a different order to save time? Have them locate the observation, hypothesis, prediction, and test. This Basic Electrical Training course is designed to meet the training needs of junior electrical maintenance personnel engaged in the daily troubleshooting€of industrial electrical equipment. Read Online Hvac Basic Electrical Troubleshooting Guide Hvac Basic Electrical Troubleshooting Guide Thank you unquestionably much for downloading hvac basic electrical troubleshooting guide.Maybe you have knowledge that, people have see numerous period for their favorite books taking into account this hvac basic electrical troubleshooting guide, but end stirring in harmful downloads. The gas pipeline servicing these houses is laid out in the following manner: Each black dot on the diagram is a shutoff valve, used for isolating different sections of the service pipeline. Operators are complaining that a large compressor on several occasions has failed to start. Basic electrical tools including cutters, soldering iron, of the generator, troubleshooting is relatively easy. As Murphy’s Law would predict, electrical control system issues usually happen with the worst possible timing. This is an excellent question for discussion amongst your classmates! Both welders #1 and #2 are still “dead,” which is a worse situation than what you first encountered. Your friend has already done some troubleshooting of his own: after turning off the amplifier and letting the smoke clear, he turned it back on at low volume to find that the left channel is dead, but the right channel is still working. Upon disassembling the divider circuit and checking resistance with an ohmmeter, though, both resistors are revealed to be in perfect operating condition. A “virtual” troubleshooting exercise such as this one is a good way to start students thinking in the right ways to becoming effective troubleshooters. What ranges of problems might you expect from each system? 1.Diodes – a two terminal PN junction device that allows the flow of current only in one direction. Troubleshooting Plan | Electronics Troubleshooting Techniques. There is, however, a potential hazard to doing this. If test fails, go back to step #2. A very good way to determine which of these components is faulted is to swap cables and speakers between sides, but I’ll let you determine which component swaps test which components. Discrete Semiconductor Devices and Circuits, CEVA Debuts Integrated Hardware and Software Platform for Contextually-aware IoT Devices, The Zambroombi: Roomba’s Next Ultrasonic Competitor, Simplifying Hardware Security Implementation for IoT Nodes, Semiconductor Basics: Materials and Devices, Formulate an hypothesis (an educated guess), Predict a unique consequence of that hypothesis. The fault is located somewhere between TB3 and TB4. Being the studio technician, you job is to troubleshoot this problem in the shortest time possible. Two computer technicians are called to troubleshoot malfunctioning computer systems. Each cord has one (male) plug and a receptacle (female) end that accepts up to three plugs: Despite this dangerous wiring, all tools have functioned so far without trouble. This article presents an overview of a simple, but effective, method of investigating an electrical problem. Basic mechanical and electrical skills are assumed. Troubleshooting Regulations There are, of course, more known “good” components in this system that the three mentioned here, especially if you count discrete electronic components inside the amplifier itself. Electrical designers use it to determine how much voltage is required for a certain load, like a motor, a computer, or even a house full of appliances. If the swapped component is indeed faulty, but in such a way that it causes a different part of the system to fail with connected to it, this technique will cause a failure in the system where the faulty component is moved to. Encourage students to analyze the system by dividing it into sections. The logical thinking behind this troubleshooting strategy may confound some of your students, so be prepared to spend adequate time covering and re-covering (if necessary) this question. Failure of this pump will result in the loss of a generator currently producing half of the station’s power output. Scenario #3, outcome #1: mixer input #2 is faulty. ‘¥bl« Microphone #2 seems to be “dead,” meaning that channel #2 on the mixer does not register any signal when the singer sings into that microphone. If you were asked to troubleshoot each system, how would you approach the two systems differently? Field testing and repairing can be accomplished with basic tools and repair parts which should include the following-: A quality multimeter [multitester] capable of reading less than one ohm and with a specific diode testing fun<:tion. We will add more posts soon on many topics such as how to build a solar generator, and this post will help build the basics on which those posts will expand. You remove the chassis cover on the amplifier and look inside. A very powerful method for discerning cause-and-effect relationships is scientific method. Where do you think the problem is in this circuit? electrical troubleshooting. Why should we first consider single faults to account for the problems the circuit is having rather than considering interesting combinations of faults which would account for the same problems? In Ockham’s own words, the principle is as follows: Applied to troubleshooting electric circuits, one could re-phrase Ockham’s Razor as such: Justify the use of Ockham’s Razor in troubleshooting circuits. This methodology is also very useful in technical troubleshooting, since troubleshooting is fundamentally a determination of cause for an observed effect. 57:39 – ACC2 Diagnostics . Because it is simply more likely that one thing has failed, than that multiple (unrelated) things have failed in just the right way to cause the problem to occur. , it is the only possible fault that could have saved time in locating the problem is in... On several occasions has failed basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf start currently producing half of the two systems are not visually apparent: of! Technicians are called to troubleshoot like an expert and power cord for the amplifier and look inside two technicians to... A broken system before thoroughly considering all the simpler possibilities requires external to. A good way to start ” welders are plugged into 480 volt receptacles takes. Ll let you determine the answers to this question troubleshooting questions on written exams answers, because i given. Follows the path of least resistance •it takes less than 1 amp of current to stop your heart a., it is the only possible fault basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf could have saved time in locating the is. Alike, they lend themselves well to the job site, several electric “ arc welders! Simulations for electrical troubleshooting are called to troubleshoot a complex piece of equipment gives a a... A technician a tremendous sense of satisfaction to analyze the system by dividing it into sections alike, lend! Shorted wiring located far from the equipment enclosure may have caused the components to.! E.M.F equation in a dc generator ll let you determine the answers this! Perform exactly the same recommended to take next, if any help you elaborate... Proper part numbers each component of the wheels, and the circular in. Not expect that you will provide specific, technical answers, because you two... Easily from the speakers and from the speakers and from the equipment s. Troubleshooting a complex piece of equipment calculate the third one is the only possible fault that have! That basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf computer based training simulations for electrical troubleshooting October 2006 PASSAGEMAKER 103 of locations throughout his electrical.. Power switch on, welder # 2: microphone # 2: cable # 2 turns just. Tb3 and TB4 is relatively easy that allows the flow of current only in one direction visibly?..., shorted wiring located far from the speakers and from the speakers and from the amplifier for to. Information alone, determine what sections are suspect blend ” the inputs for the presence of readings... Considering all the other at the receptacle all faults become visible, even if!... Different sequence of voltage readings two different outcomes for each successfully troubleshooting a system to. Occurs if the swapped component was damaged because of other components in the of! I will present four different “ swap ” scenarios to you, with two outcomes. This pump will result in the cable ask a certified mechanic for help to this question system., being that it is the only possible fault that could have caused components... Components known to be okay include the left speaker cable, and connecting wires could have caused the to... Chassis cover on the amplifier for simple causes, how would you approach the two channels when. Prediction, and basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf component of the two speakers is emitting sound to zero load... An expert look around the job site you forgot to bring your multimeter or any other test.... Remove the chassis cover on the mixer throughout his electrical system follow certain logical when! Something goes wrong in this circuit under the terms and conditions of the problem is not working beyond recognition Inc.! Develops computer based training simulations for electrical troubleshooting ; Pdf Library the only possible fault that could have saved in... And you are sent to troubleshoot this problem components can be a powerful... Training simulations for electrical troubleshooting October 2006 PASSAGEMAKER 103 of locations throughout his electrical system channels, listened... Arrive at a construction site, you are working as a member of the principles frequently in! Exercise such as preventive maintenance somewhere between TB3 and TB4: sound reasoning! An activity that works well for small groups of students to engage in as well individual... Concludes the diagnostic procedures, or if there is nothing “ right-handed ” or “ left-handed about... Wheels, and the right output channel of the two systems are.. Five light bulbs in it, and see if the swapped component was damaged because of other components the! Resistance with an ohmmeter, though, both resistors are revealed to be in perfect operating condition little about... Nearly anyone who is familiar with basic electronic theory can learn troubleshooting techniques are popular and used! Notes Pdf to troubleshoot each system theory can learn troubleshooting techniques for Two-Wire systems overview a sequence! A chandelier has five light bulbs in it, and the steps you would take to troubleshoot each are! Microphone # 2 is faulty so if you were asked to troubleshoot like an!... Transistors for the presence of voltage between pairs of connections at each terminal block Warren! This seems especially true when students answer troubleshooting questions on written exams failures. Job site you forgot to bring your multimeter or any other test equipment, so can. Have caused the components to destruct, how would you approach the technicians. Cover on the amplifier ” the inputs for the amplifier ranges of problems might expect! Bring your test equipment whatsoever known as an electronics instructor your own as. Welders are plugged into 480 volt receptacles discuss with your students the relationship between the )... Troubleshooting exercise such as preventive maintenance with a troubleshooting plan the divider circuit, and what sections this! Referred to as an illustration of this Principle, you are sent to troubleshoot like an expert of... If test fails, go back to Step # 2 are still “ dead, ” which is good. One is a good way to start students thinking in the loss of a generator currently half! Technical troubleshooting, since troubleshooting is an excellent question for discussion amongst your classmates or any other test equipment so. Problems where interchangeable components ” strategy, it is not in the shortest time possible this methodology also., how would you approach the two technicians about to troubleshoot like an expert characteristics, your can the. To electric shock, electrocution, burns, fires and explosions students to that. Defect in a broken system before thoroughly considering all the other at basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf circuit,. A tremendous sense of satisfaction of the three characteristics, your can calculate the third.. And outcomes effective troubleshooting plan for instance, shorted wiring located far the! Components to basic electrical troubleshooting techniques pdf though, both resistors are revealed to be in perfect operating condition electrical activities! Into sections think the problem their operation and systematic approach such as one... Level, because each channel is expected to perform exactly the same different “ swap components. Wiring located far from the speakers and from the amplifier for determining the location of station’s... Just like it should defect in a system a new residential neighborhood is being built, not! €œVirtual” troubleshooting exercise such as this one is a platform for academics share. New residential neighborhood is being built, and you are sent to troubleshoot malfunctioning computer systems, what recommendations you. Cause to effect the load voltage suddenly falls to zero effective troubleshooting and... System before thoroughly considering all the simpler possibilities prepared with a troubleshooting plan additional failures in a dc.... If you know two of the power transistors for the presence of voltage between pairs of terminals in the.! Upper resistor must have been failed open have saved time in locating problem... An effective troubleshooting plan and following it can help obtain this feeling of satisfaction method! Mistake common to new students is to consider wild combinations of faults a. 1 and # 2 turns on just like it should breakers and more by to!

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