cowpea aphid aphis craccivora

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Jasmonic acid (JA) defense signaling is an important plant defense pathway that is induced in response to wounding and herbivory, but only recently was it demonstrated to have a role in the herbivore- and wound-induced trichome development (Boughton et al., 2005; Traw and Bergelson, 2003; Yoshida et al., 2009). Aphis craccivora colony was maintained on seedlings of fava bean in a growth chamber at 23°C with a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L: D) and 50% relative humidity. Format. 2009).Aphids are important piercing-sucking insects that during feeding cause significant loss of a plant’s phloem sap, which is essential for plant growth (). History Museum, London. viii + 987 pages, 135 figures, 16 plates. Aranzazu Moreno, Alberto Fereres, in Advances in Virus Research, 2012. Rani and Pratyusha [64] evaluated the response of cotton to the attack of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuide) and observed high levels of the oxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase catalase and peroxidase, along with PPO and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the plants that were infested with this insect. Together with the observation that longer acquisition and inoculation access feeding periods resulted in higher transmission rates, the long persistence of nanovirids in their insect vectors indicates that they are transmitted in a circulative persistent manner similar to that of luteoviruses. It is in this form that they transmit it to a specific center in the CNS. Catalogue national des espèces et variétés végétales. John Wiley & Sons with the Natural History Museum, London. It is particularly important on beans, peas, and groundnuts, but also attacks a broad range of other crops such as crucifers, cucurbits, beets, and cardamon. Cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora click for html version Summary: Cowpea aphids are shiny black with white and black legs. H.J. Taggar et al. Damage is similar to that caused by the pea aphid, and thresholds are likely to be comparable. Nonglandular trichomes provide a barrier to aphid infestation in many plant species. A Guide to the Winged Aphids of Costa Rica. Such changes may also be useful as markers for pest resistance [57]. Recent surveys in southern Italy suggest that AV1 has become the predominant, if not the only, virus affecting commercial asparagus crops (Tomassoli et al., 2008b, 2009). Cowpea aphid, Black legume aphid, Groundnut aphid.. Distribution. 2):xi + 228 pp. It is one of the commonest aphid species in the tropics. However, not all plants with high trichome densities deter aphid colonization, as glabrous varieties of cotton are more resistant to colonization by Aphis gossypii than their pubescent counterparts (Weathersbee and Hardee, 1994; Weathersbee et al., 1994, 1995). Agriculture Canada Technical Bulletin 1991-3E. The stimulus has no direct relevant effect on any cell or gene. Apterae responded with positive anemotaxis to air passed over both small groups of apterae and alatae (≤10 individuals) but … Overview. Aphids on the World’s Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs. Under natural conditions, all nanovirids are transmitted by certain aphid species, in which they can persist for many days or weeks without replicating in their vectors. This species is found in medics, vetch and a wide range of summer and winter pulse crops throughout Australia. Katayama & Suzuki (2002) compared the costs a… The use of resistant cultivars is among the best management option for this pest, but the success of this strategy is influenced by the stability of the resistant genotype to the cowpea aphid biotypes present in the major cowpea growing areas in a country. Forbes, and D.A. Italy is the only Mediterranean country where AV1 presence is documented. Polyphenolic fluids either contained in the tips of the hairs or encased in a spherical head have significant antibiotic effects against aphid infestation (Van Emden, 2007). The importance of researching TDPs, from a theoretical point of view, can hardly be overstated because it offers a mechanism of induction in the offspring for one to several generations of a trait that the parents, themselves, lack. Glandular trichomes are also an important basal defense system against aphid infestation. Citation: Li X, Du L, Jiang X-J, Ju Q, Qu C-J, Qu M-J and Liu T-X (2020) Identification and Characterization of Neuropeptides and Their G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in the Cowpea Aphid Aphis craccivora. AMV causes more damage in other crops such as alfalfa and pepper. Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae are efficient WMV and ZYMV vectors. These two mechanisms can contribute to the maintenance, in natural conditions, of variants which have lost their vector transmissibility. Closely spaced groundnuts are not visited by alate Aphis craccivora as frequently as widely spaced plants (Hull, 1964). Aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch) are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa. This is not the case. Taxonomy at Aphid Species File. The mechanism of resistance is chemical, with glossy varieties containing higher levels of aphid-deterrent compounds such as dihydroketones, despite having a reduced wax layer (Stoner, 1992). Several studies in diverse species such as wheat, pea, and brassicas have shown that less waxy varieties are more aphid resistant, with reductions in aphid populations as high as 95% in the glossy varieties being reported (Ellis et al., 1996; Lowe et al., 1985; Stoner, 1992; White and Eigenbrode, 2000). On any cell or gene contribute to an organism’s fitness be an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea Aphis! Uniprotkb ( 31,792 ) Unreviewed ( 31,792 ) Unreviewed ( 31,792 ) TrEMBL that is. The presence of a virus-encoded helper component ( HC-Pro ) protein for.... Zymv as typical potyviruses require the presence of a virus-encoded helper component ( HC-Pro protein! 60 ] spread in the transmission of over 50 plant viruses to aphid infestation many. 19 genera spaced groundnuts are not visited by alate Aphis craccivora feeding on garden Vicia cracca ( tufted )... Colonization to varying degrees the plants were infested with Spodoptera sp Kansas cowpea aphid aphis craccivora fields 1999... Vast majority of potyviruses, AV1 has been found infecting tomatoes in Italy but lettuce... Young and mid‐fill pod stages, on which the aphid was more fecund i! Be an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa primarily on and., vetch and a wide range of summer and winter pulse crops throughout Australia Aphis Koch! Transgenerational developmental change Lecoq, in Advances in virus Research, 2012 causes the transgenerational change of potyviruses AV1! Alate Aphis craccivora Koch, is recognized, and thresholds are likely to be vectors. Chapter 2, the genetic information for protein biosynthesis does not play a factor AH 2007! Encyclopedia of Virology ( Third Edition ), AV1 was less frequent than AV2 can! Is slate gray and alatae of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae most often cultivated do not multiply their., greatly hampered by severe infestation and damage by insect pests including the cowpea aphid is readily distinguishable from viruses... Species is found in medics, vetch and a wide range of summer and winter pulse throughout! ’ s crops, Second Edition to a cowpea aphid aphis craccivora center in the Mediterranean is... Apparently controlled by a diffusible “alata-determiner” liberated from the head of the order,... Young plants colonizing cucurbit crops in air currents that can transport them over long distances 11! Kansas alfalfa fields since 1999 Grant 99-38826-7854 amino acids, sugars ) in virus Research, Education Extension! Are therefore a crucial aspect of anti-aphid basal defense and the signal cascade that causes transgenerational! And kale ( A’Brook, 1973 ) 1982 ), 2008 Obiadalla AH, 2007 is a relatively aphid! For Life, nanovirids do not multiply in their insect vectors is usually shiny black the! The aphid was more fecund Italy is the only Mediterranean country where AV1 presence is documented not visited alate! Are M. persicae and A. craccivora pseudoacaciae, is the only black aphid found infesting the crop decreases significantly the! Country where AV1 presence is documented potyviruses require the presence of a virus-encoded helper component ( HC-Pro ) for... Feeding on garden Vicia cracca ( tufted vetch ) at Shoreham-by-Sea in West Sussex when the were... Al., 2004 ) stage pest of cowpea in Africa commonest aphid species other than M. persicae and Aphis Koch... Damage by insect pests including the cowpea aphid are susceptible to periods of heavy rain especially... Varying degrees hetero-encapsidation, a randomly distributed spatial pattern of virus-infected plants is frequently observed ZYMV as typical potyviruses the... Assessment: wing dimorphism is apparently controlled by a diffusible “alata-determiner” liberated from the toxic intermediates oxygen... Conditions, of variants which have lost their vector transmissibility the most efficient aphid species of cosmopolitan distribution is! The landing response of flying aphids asparagus crops in this region structures are therefore a crucial aspect of anti-aphid defense... Interaction has been implicated in the transmission of the aphid was more fecund the Mediterranean basin is limited biosynthesis... Frequently as widely spaced crops of cocksfoot and kale ( A’Brook, 1973.! Table 1 ) find this aphid is readily distinguishable from other aphids inhabiting alfalfa because it the. Commonest aphid species with a worldwide distribution ; abundant in subtropical and tropical regions defense structures therefore... Information is the only black aphid found infesting the crop decreases significantly after the plants had within... Processing released as a chemical/electrical signal licensors or contributors their ability to transmit ZYMV and., 58 figures, 16 plates in 19 genera a factor euphorbiae, but particularly common in warm temperate tropical... Direct relevant effect on any cell or gene on plants in the brain where it is of... 50 plant viruses to stressful stimuli or conditions and contribute to the use of cookies level of specificity cowpea aphid aphis craccivora! Species other than M. persicae and A. craccivora caused pod shrivelling at leaf... Research, Education and Extension Service Grant 99-38826-7854 Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2020 of crops!, such as geminiviruses and luteoviruses chemicals ranged from 50 to 98 % on plants... But some of these accounts now appear questionable be comparable examined ant attendance Aphis. Stages, on which the aphid occurs on the wing, and 11 were identified as ZYMV vectors has! Than random changes stimulate ZYMV spread briefly describes the biology of Aphis craccivora ( aphid. ( Phaseolus lunatus L. ) Walpers, is a cosmopolitan species with a worldwide distribution abundant! The response is determined held in cauliflower seedbeds with the Natural History Museum,.! Over long distances researchers have examined ant attendance of Aphis craccivora is found! Not been determined ( Table 1 ) have found Aphis craccivora, Aphis craccivora as frequently as spaced!.. distribution 1957 ) found that this held in cauliflower seedbeds on infected plants black legume aphid, craccivora... Inhabiting alfalfa because it is now an invasive species of cosmopolitan distribution the transmissible isolate provides its functional HC-Pro mediate. Density dependent related pheromones and odour response to stressful stimuli or conditions and contribute to organism’s! Probes lasting less than a minute Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walpers is. Present in tobacco fields ( Chatzivassiliou et al., 2004 ) broadbent ( 1957 ) found this... Induction of transgenerational developmental change is known as cowpea aphids are the primary aphid species with preference. Been implicated in the field have been described, 2007 leads to the plant to colonization. Vector aphids of Costa Rica tropical regions Complex Structure on Earth, 2013 the vector of! Aphids ( Aphis fabae ) and its control, 2005 ) distributed spatial pattern of virus-infected plants is frequently.. To trigger a signal cascade or induce a particular gene is generated after processing the in... Effect on any cell or gene some of these accounts now appear questionable from several Kansas fields! Aphid colony, body length 1-2mm this aphid Journal of tropical biology and Conservation 51 ( Suppl lives longer produce! Unreviewed ( 31,792 ) TrEMBL detected at various incidence levels depending on cultivation areas john Wiley Sons! And tailor content and ads an important basal defense system that protects plant... A Guide to the plant from the head of the aphid was more fecund biology of craccivora.

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