russian civil war casualties

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The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. Not only one must see alliances, but analyze the reason behind the different formations of different factions. Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. Boldyrev, Commander-in-Chief, appointed by the Ufa Directorate. Peter C. Mentzel, "Chaos and Utopia: The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution and Civil War". The leading Tsarist officers of the Imperial Russian Army also started to resist. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of pre-war levels. Anger at continued repression by the Bolshevik Communist government and at its liberal use of the Cheka to put down anarchist elements led to a naval mutiny at Kronstadt in March 1921, followed by peasant revolts. [17] The forced conscription drive had mixed results, successfully creating a larger army than the Whites, but with members indifferent towards Marxist–Leninist ideology. By February 1919 the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. World War II was a war that spanned from 1939 to 1945. The railways barely crawl. After the capture of Tsaritsyn, Wrangel pushed towards Saratov but Trotsky, seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak, against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops, repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. Support for the war and the Czar, Nicholas II, was dwindling and the country was on the brink of revolution. Within a month the Czechoslovak Legion controlled most of the Trans-Siberian Railroad between Lake Baikal and the Ural regions. ", Smele, Jonathan D. "‘If Grandma had Whiskers...': Could the Anti-Bolsheviks have won the Russian Revolutions and Civil Wars? With over 825,000 combat fatalities and 2 million more war-related casualties, the Russian Civil War is considered the most costly civil war in modern times. The February Revolution of 1917 resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. Russian Civil War - Russian Civil War - Foreign intervention: The Allied governments now had to decide on their policy in the confused Russian situation. The second period of the war lasted from January to November 1919. London: Ludgate Press Ltd., 1964. This article lists the United States of America's military dead, wounded, and missing person totals for wars and major deployments. The area was once the main square for the Russian Empire, and many important events have occurred here. The exchange rate with the US dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. Syria conflict: 34% rise in civilian deaths caused by Russian airstrikes, report finds. The Russian Empire fought in World War I from 1914 alongside France and the United Kingdom (Triple Entente) against Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Central Powers). During several months in winter and spring of 1919, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place in the Donbass, where the attacking Bolsheviks met White forces. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934. At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. [39], The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people before the Revolution. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovak Legion,[31] the Poles of the 4th and 5th Rifle Divisions and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. ", Ford, Chris. As in any civil war, it is particularly difficult to distinguish between military operations as such and "collateral" violence - to use this anachronistic term in the context of the events of those years: civilian massacres, hostage takings, deportations of populations collectively considered as "enemies." However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. A biography of Kaledin (in Russian), "Ukraine – World War I and the struggle for independence", 100 years ago Bakhmut and the rest of Donbass liberated, "The Ukrainian Navy and the Crimean Issue in 1917–18", War Without Fronts: Atamans and Commissars in Ukraine, 1917–1919, "Workers' Organizations in the Russian Revolution", "Distinguished Service Order citation for Bruce in the 1920, https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_22_2_03_mentzel.pdf, "Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917", And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930, ‘If Grandma had Whiskers … ’: Could the Anti-Bolsheviks have won the Russian Revolutions and Civil Wars? The Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries supported peasants fighting against Soviet control of food supplies. At the same time Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR) completed the elimination of Red forces in the northern Caucasus and advanced towards Tsaritsyn. The Russian Civil War was a deadly war in the country for the casualties reached 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 people. After a series of reverses at the front, the Bolsheviks' War Commissar, Trotsky, instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorised withdrawals, desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. [72] The Cossack Don Army under the command of Gen. Vladimir Sidorin continued north towards Voronezh, but there Semyon Budyonny's cavalrymen defeated them on 24 October. To meet this danger the Allies intervened with Great Britain and France sending troops into Russian ports. The Russian Civil War, which started just after November 1917, would tear apart Russia for three years. This section includes books and articles, as well as compilations of primary sources. While resistance to the Red Guards began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one-party rule became a catalyst[20] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. As a result, the Russian Provisional Government was established, and soviets, elected councils of workers, soldiers, and peasants, were organized throughout the country, leading to a situation of dual power. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920 and cattle from 58 to 37 million. In 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. [36] However, after the Bolshevik destruction of the Provisional Government in Tashkent, Muslim elites formed an autonomous government in Turkestan, commonly called the "Kokand autonomy" (or simply Kokand). After a series of engagements, assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines, the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November. The February Revolution changed the course of the war; under intense political pressure, the Tsar abdicated and the Russian Provisional Government w… A total of 192 American casualties. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued, The Red Army peaked in October 1920 with 5,498,000: 2,587,000 in reserves, 391,000 in labor armies, 159,000 on the front and 1,780,000 drawing rations. Or, the Constraints and Conceits of Counterfactual History, Newsreels about Russian Civil War // Net-Film Newsreels and Documentary Films Archive, 1914-1918-online. See Also: 10 Facts about Roman York Facts about Russian Civil War 4: casualties. A detailed map animation of Northern Eurasia between 1917 and 1931, focusing on the Russian Civil War, but also showing some peripheral conflicts. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. [45] Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks because the Russian Army was demobilized, and the newly formed Red Guard was incapable of stopping the advance. Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Krivosheev maintained that the figure of 8.668 million is correct because it excludes called up reservist… "The Defeat of Communism". [89][90][91][92] More modest estimates put the numbers executed by the Bolsheviks between December 1917 and February 1922 at around 28,000 per year, with roughly 10,000 executions during the Red Terror. With the retreat of Kolchak in Siberia, they pulled their troops out of the cities before the winter trapped them in the port. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. With the end of the war, the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934.[84]. [93], Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920. Former Imperial Russian and then Finnish Gen. Mannerheim planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia capture Petrograd. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the … They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. [58] Although this move seemed to solidify Bolshevik power in Central Asia, more troubles soon arose for the Red Army as the Allied Forces began to intervene. Approximately 150,000 Jewish victims (125,000 in the Ukraine, 25,000 in Belarus) died between 1918 and 1922. Most of the fighting in this first period was sporadic, involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly shifting strategic situation. [87] Evan Mawdsley suspected that there were more than 12,733, and less than 200,000. 1919 was undoubtedly the deadliest year. "The Tanks: The History Of The Royal Tank Regiment And Its Predecessors, Heavy Branch Machine-Gun Corps, Tank Corps And Royal Tank Corps, 1914–1945. The main body of White forces, the Volunteers and the Don Army, pulled back towards the Don, to Rostov. After the treaty, it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. The revolutions of 1917 in the Russian Empire led to extremely violent civil wars in 1918. Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and General Grigory Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks were prominent among them. The Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865, and remains the deadliest war in American history. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty, and the formal agreement, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was ratified on 6 March. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2% of pre-war levels. The Russian Civil War suffocated the revolution, destroyed democracy, and cleared the way for Stalinist dictatorship. [53] In May 1918, with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion, they took Samara and Saratov, establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly—known as the "Komuch". He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. Three foreign nations of the Central Powers also intervened, rivaling the Allied intervention with the main goal of retaining the territory they had received in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. In December 1917 Alekseev was joined by General Lavr Kornilov, Denikin and other Tsarist officers who had escaped from the jail, where they had been imprisoned following the abortive Kornilov affair just before the Revolution. A review of Red Army troops in Moscow in 1918. During this first period the Bolsheviks took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army, setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan, where nearly two million Russian settlers were located.[30]. During the Red Terror, the Cheka carried out an estimated 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people". On the 11th Simbirsk fell, and on 8 October Samara. "[citation needed] It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. [78] In March 1920 her remnants crossed the border into the Northwestern region of China. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. [77] The Orenburg Independent Army was formed from Orenburg Cossacks and others troops which rebelled against the Bolsheviks. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. Yekaterinodar was encircled on 1 August and fell on the 3rd. [14], The Red Army also utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists" (voenspetsy);[18] sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty. Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed. Under Soviet pressure, the Volunteer Army embarked on the epic Ice March from Yekaterinodar to Kuban on 22 February 1918, where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Yekaterinodar. Artist: Unknown - DDYBW2 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The industrial production value descended to one-seventh of the value of 1913 and agriculture to one-third. The Komuch pursued an ambivalent social policy, combining democratic and socialist measures, such as the institution of an eight-hour working day, with "restorative" actions, such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. Under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks. A failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov in September 1917 led to a surge in support for the Bolshevik party, who gained majorities in the soviets, which until then had been controlled by the Socialist Revolutionaries. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks, using Cheka military detachments. The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. Stewart-Smith, D.G. Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million. In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. In this segment, the intent is to provide background reading on the Civil War, as well as explore the origins of the conflict. The third was Maj. Gen. Dunsterville, who the Bolsheviks drove out of Central Asia only a month after his arrival in August 1918. [27] The Second Polish Republic, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918.[28]. [32] At the beginning of December 1917, groups of volunteers and Cossacks captured Rostov. In June 1918 the Volunteer Army, numbering some 9,000 men, started its Second Kuban campaign. However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. In the early 1900s, the Russian Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths. The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion broke out in May 1918, and the legionaries took control of Chelyabinsk in June. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. Britain intervened in support of the White forces to defeat the Bolsheviks and prevent the spread of communism across Europe. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it, but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. Trotsky himself declared, "It is impossible for a little army of 15,000 ex-officers to master a working-class capital of 700,000 inhabitants." In the early 1900s, the Russian Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. [70] The fall of Tsaritsyn is viewed "as one of the key battles of the Russian Civil War" which greatly helped the White Russian cause. Within a few weeks the Red Army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth[100] in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. There is not anything fun about the Civil War casualties...It is very sobering to stop and look at the truly tragic cost of life from this war. The members of the Directory were arrested and Kolchak proclaimed the "Supreme Ruler of Russia". Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region,[29] where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. [16] The Bolsheviks overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. [23], The German Empire created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: the United Baltic Duchy, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Kingdom of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland,[24] the Belarusian People's Republic, and the Ukrainian State. 9. In Ukraine the German-Austrian Operation Faustschlag had by April 1918 removed the Bolsheviks from Ukraine. [46][47][48][49][50] The German and Austro-Hungarian victories in Ukraine were due to the apathy of the locals and the inferior fighting skills of Bolsheviks troops compared to their Austro-Hungarian and German counterparts.[50]. Krivosheev's study puts Soviet military dead and missing at 8.7 million and is often cited by historians. The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. With the support of the Japanese army it was able to hold Chita, but after withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia, Semenov's position became untenable, and in November 1920 he was driven by the Red Army from Transbaikalia and took refuge in China. This, combined with the creation of the Provisional All-Russian Government, saw the reduction of the Bolsheviks to most of European Russia and parts of Central Asia. [56] In August, frustrated at continued reports of Red Army troops breaking under fire, Trotsky authorised the formation of barrier troops – stationed behind unreliable Red Army units and given orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorisation.[57]. Casualties of the Red and White Armies in Siberia, Russian Civil War, c1918-c1923. In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.[13]. The towns are full of refuse. Having stated in the November 1917 "Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia" that any nation under imperial Russian rule should be immediately given the power of self-determination, the Bolsheviks had begun to usurp the power of the Provisional Government in the territories of Central Asia soon after the establishment of the Turkestan Committee in Tashkent. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. British support of the White Army provided the greatest threat to the Red Army in Central Asia during 1918. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". In May 1918, the Czech Legion in Russia revolted in Siberia. Moffat, "The Allies Act—Murmansk and Archangel." Soviet forces advanced east, despite encountering resistance in Chita, Yakut and Mongolia. Major Ewen Cameron Bruce of the British Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army. [33] In April 1917 the Provisional Government set up this committee, which was mostly made up of former Tsarist officials. In October Gen. Alekseev, the leader of the White armies in southern Russia died of a heart attack. He settled on a strategy of urban defense, proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" and that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave".[63]. [19] At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers formed three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, International Responses to the Russian Civil War (Russian Empire), Social Conflict and Control, Protest and Repression (Russian Empire), Russian Revolution and Civil War archive at libcom.org/library, "Civil War of 1917 – 1922 at Encyclopedia of Russian History, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, British Campaign in Central Asia (1918–20), Ural Cossacks March from Fort Aleksandrovskoe to Persia, Red Army War Crimes during the Russian Civil War, White Army War Crimes during the Russian Civil War, Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia, Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689), Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Russian_Civil_War&oldid=993657042, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Europe, Articles with Ukrainian-language sources (uk), Wikipedia references cleanup from July 2020, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from July 2020, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, American troops in Vladivostok during the. Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with General Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. [51] The Soviets recaptured Rostov on the next day. Or, the Constraints and Conceits of Counterfactual History. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers went into exile. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia. That suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd. [41] However, after the military fiasco of the summer offensive (June 1917) by the Russian Provisional Government had devastated the structure of the Russian Army, it became crucial that Lenin realize the promised peace. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army, and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished. Due to Red Army successes north of Central Asia, communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.[75]. Nearly unopposed starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews in and... During World War I in November, Alexander Kolchak launched a coup d'état established Kolchak as.. [ 84 ] retreat east Decossackization, out of Central Asia during 1918 Yudenich, the. 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