the popes and slavery

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The UN underlines that the “consent of the person trafficked for exploitation is irrelevant and if the trafficked person is a child, it is a crime even without the use of force.”. The common pretext of the allies of "the enemy of the human race," i.e. The popes and slavery / Joel S. Panzer. The Popes and Slavery: Setting the Record Straight, EWTN | 5817 Old Leeds Rd. Amazingly, it was decided that papal pronouncements against slavery, particularly Gregory XVI's , did not apply to the institution as it existed in the United States, thus yielding on this issue a sort of Americanized Gallicanism. To participate in efforts against slavery in all its forms, the ILO emphasizes addressing the root causes of forced labor, particularly by educating vulnerable groups and providing economic empowerment through skill development. Copyright © 2017-2020 Dicasterium pro Communicatione - All rights reserved. The 1839 Constitution by Gregory XVI continued the antislavery teaching of his predecessors, and was in the same manner not accepted by many of those bishops, priests and laity for whom it was written. isbn. Hennesey wrote: "No (American) Catholic bishop spoke for abolition in the pre-war years. . The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery recalls the adoption of the UN Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others on 2 December 1949. 0818907649 (pbk.) Christian views on slavery are varied regionally, historically and spiritually. Joel S. Panzer (Alba House, 1996), shows that the Popes did condemn racial slavery as early as 1435. From the documents we have very briefly considered, it is clear that the forced enslavement of Indians and blacks was condemned from the time that the "Age of Discovery" began, and that as this problem continued and expanded in the territorial finds of the New World, the same teaching of the Roman pontiffs was reiterated time and again. The popes and slavery. This clearly indicates that the practice of enslaving an entire ethnic group of people—the Indians of South America—for no morally justifiable reason was indeed different from anything previously encountered. The Popes and Slavery by Joel S. Panzer (1996-10-16): Joel S. Panzer: Books - Amazon.ca. Likewise, the buying and selling of slaves unjustly held was also condemned by 1435. This article was taken from the January/February 1996 issue of "The Catholic Answer", published by Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 200 Noll Plaza, Huntinton, IN 46750, 1-800-521-0600. This brings us back to our initial question: When did the Church condemn this slavery? Lincoln said the war had nothing to do with slavery, and General U.S. Grant said that if he thought the war was about freeing the slaves, he would turn in his sword and fight for the other side. catalogue key. However, it was not until the 15th century, and with growing frequency from the 16th to the 19th centuries, that racial slavery as we know it became a major problem. The UN draws attention to contemporary forms of forced labor alongside traditional forms such as bonded labor and debt bondage. Nevertheless, the Catholic tradition of opposition to unjust servitude was a great help in eventually bringing about an end to the enslavement of the Indians and blacks in many parts of Latin America, as well as of the peoples in the Philippines and other areas. Since that Constitution mentioned the documents of the previous pontiffs, it is hard to understand how the American hierarchy was not aware of the consistency of the teaching and its nature. It is a day set aside to raise awareness and to reinforce global efforts in combatting the scourge of modern slavery. Sixty years before Columbus discovered the New World, Pope Eugene IV condemned the enslavement of peoples in the newly colonized Canary Islands. Panzer's basic premise is that the Popes did condemn North and South American slavery, which was different from "just title servitude." From Pope Eugene IV in 1435 protesting the capturing for slavery of natives of the Canary Islands, through Leo XIII urging Brazilian bishops to work for the abolition of slavery, popes have stood together, reinforcing the condemnations issued by their predecessors. Thus, the unjust slavery that had begun in the newly found territories was condemned, condemned as soon as it was discovered, and condemned in the strongest of terms. Paul III stated that the practice of this form of servitude was "unheard of before now." Thus, the misreading of that exists among scholars today actually has its roots in the partial rejection of that papal Constitution by the American hierarchy over a century and a half earlier. The prevalent attitude of the American hierarchy, with some notable exceptions in both directions, was that many aspects of slavery were evil, but that to change the law would be, practically speaking, a greater evil. Amazon.in - Buy The Popes and Slavery book online at best prices in India on Amazon.in. noting that the Indians themselves indeed are true men and are not only capable of the Christian faith, but, as has been made known to us, promptly hasten to the faith' and wishing to provide suitable remedies for them, by our Apostolic Authority decree and declare by these present letters that the same Indians and all other peoples—even though they are outside the faith—who shall hereafter come to the knowledge of Christians have not been deprived or should not be deprived of their liberty or of their possessions. The just titles to servitude were not rejected by the Church, but rather were tolerated for many reasons. The purpose of the "The Popes and Slavery" by Father Joel Panzer is to collect the primary material on the papal encyclicals and to provide some brief background material on the history, purpose and effect of the encyclicals. The development of this teaching over the span of nearly five centuries was occasioned by the unique and illicit form of servitude that accompanied the Age of Discovery. 708679 . Try Prime Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Cart. 1179 AD: The Third Lateran Council imposes slavery on those helping the Saracens. He wrote: "In 1839 Gregory XVI condemned the slave trade, but not so explicitly that the condemnation covered occasional sales by owners of surplus stock.". The pontifical teaching was continued by the response of the Holy Office on March 20, 1686, under Innocent XI, and by the encyclical of Benedict XIV, , on December 20, 1741. However, it is clear that Gregory wrote to condemn precisely what was occurring in the United States, namely the enslavement of blacks: "We, by apostolic authority, warn and strongly exhort in the Lord faithful Christians of every condition that no one in the future dare to bother unjustly, despoil of their possessions, or reduce to slavery () Indians, Blacks or other such peoples.". He has stirred up some of his allies who, desiring to satisfy their own avarice, are presuming to assert far and wide that the Indians of the West and the South who have come to our notice in these times be reduced to our service like brute animals, under the pretext that they are lacking the Catholic Faith. [2] Yet many of the earliest Christian congregations took seriously the apostles’ teachings on equality and their warnings against favouritism, and, with the help of the Holy Spirit, they applied these principles even though it went very much against the prevailing culture. John T. Noonan also believes that Gregory condemned only the slave trade, and that there were exceptions even to this condemnation. Also correct is the papal historian, J.N.D. Throughout history, the Church found Herself among cultures practicing slavery and had to deal with it. MARC View. The following is taken from his consideration of the Church's efforts, or lack thereof, to obtain the abolition of slavery in the United States: "Opponents of slavery found slight support in official church teaching. . In one of these letters we learn of the events of the 1840 Council of Baltimore, where the bishops read and discussed this apostolic letter: "Thus, if this document condemned our domestic slavery as an unlawful and consequently immoral practice, the bishops could not have accepted it without being bound to refuse the sacraments to all who were slave holders unless they manumitted their slaves; yet, if you look to the prelates who accepted the document, for the acceptation was immediate and unanimous: you will find, 1st the Archbishop of Baltimore ...2d, the Bishop of Bardstown ... 3d, the Bishop of Charleston: ... 4th, the Bishop of St. Louis ... 5th, the Bishop of Mobile ... 6th, the Bishop of New Orleans ...and 7th, the Bishop of Nashville ... they all regarded the letter as treating of the 'slave-trade,' and not as touching 'domestic slavery.' Pope Leo XIII (r. 1878-1903) promulgated two bulls condemning slavery in 1888 and 1890. More Details. Click here to load MARC record link to old catalogue . In 1840 (the Bishop of Charleston) John England explained to (President Martin) Van Buren's Secretary of State, John Forsyth, that Pope Gregory XVI had condemned the trade in slaves, but that no pope had ever condemned domestic slavery as it had existed in the United States" (emphasis added). Ten years later, on 2 December 1995, the day was internationally proclaimed as a World Day. The primary area of contention with lies in determining what was actually being condemned by Gregory. First, however, let us consider the content of itself. The Holy Father has been a constant voice calling for the eradication of situations of exploitation and modern forms of slavery. Thus, the historical papal teaching against unjust servitude and the slave trade was upheld, and in 1839 was once again presented to the Christian faithful for their adherence. The Popes and Slavery by Joel S. Panzer (1996-10-16) | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Popes Gregory XIV (Cum Sicuti, 1591), Urban VIII (Commissum Nobis, 1639) and Benedict XIV (Immensa Pastorum, 1741) also condemned slavery and the slave trade. A recent book, entitled The Popes and Slavery written by Fr. Report a problem. With , Eugene was clearly intending to condemn the enslavement of the people of the Canaries and, in no uncertain terms, to inform the faithful that what was being condemned was what we would classify as gravely wrong. He currently is assigned to the Newman Center at the University of Nebraska. This includes prostitution, forced labor, slavery and servitude. The American Civil War cannot be cast in the simplistic terms of pro-slavery verses anti-slavery. According to some notable figures, the Church did not finally condemn slavery until recently. [Joel S Panzer] -- This book reveals how the Church has in the past and still does speak up decisively to halt the infamous trade in human flesh. Skip to main content. Father Panzer succeeds in his appointed task: this book is an excellent resource for primary source materials on the subject of papal teachings on slavery. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. At the same time, he noted that: "There were to be found subsequently among the faithful some who, shamefully blinded by the desire of sordid gain, in lonely and distant countries did not hesitate to reduce to slavery () Indians, Blacks and other unfortunate peoples, or else, by instituting or expanding the trade in those who had been made slaves by others, aided the crime of others. one can search in vain through the interventions of the Holy See—those of Pius V, Urban VIII and Benedict XIV—for any condemnation of the actual principle of slavery.". Answering the charge that Catholics were widely supporting the abolitionist movement—which sadly was far from accurate—England noted that Gregory XVI was condemning only the slave trade and not slavery itself, especially as it existed in the United States. The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is marked annually on 2 December. | Irondale, AL 35210 |. Pope reiterates call to end modern day slavery, Slavery makes us un-dignified because it takes way everyone's dignity, Francis says in his International Day for the Abolition of Slavery message Trafficking in persons – the recruitment, transportation, reception, harboring or transfer of persons by force or coercion for exploitation – is another form of modern slavery. Church leaders argued that slavery served as a natural deterrent and Christianizing influence to “barbarous” behavior among pagans. Satan, for enslaving the Indians was that they lacked the Faith. Pope Francis made the admission while visiting the Middle East Pope Francis has admitted that clerics have sexually abused nuns, and in one case … To commemorate this International Day on Wednesday, the Pope sent out a message on his Twitter account: “Today, as in the past, slavery is rooted in a notion of the human person that allows people to be treated like an object, it tramples their dignity. At the same time, it must be remembered that Christians themselves, and notably members of the clergy, frequently and sometimes blatantly violated this same teaching. Another instance of modern slavery is child labor. England evidently felt justification for this dissent lay in the episcopal (mis)interpretation of . When did the Catholic Church condemn slavery? Books . At a time when the Atlantic slave trade had already assumed horrific dimensions, when the decennial imports into the Americas had probably reached a quarter of a million and were still rapidly increasing, two of the most powerful organs of the Papacy – the Holy Office and the Congregation of Propaganda Fide – were called upon to consider some of the moral and religious issues raised by the trade. Papal denunciations of slavery were so harsh and so frequent that the colonial Spanish instituted a law forbidding the publication of papal documents in the colonies … He mentioned the efforts of Clement I, Pius II, Paul III, Benedict XIV, Urban VIII and Pius VII, before concluding this historical summary: "Indeed these sanctions and this concern of Our Predecessors availed in no small measure, with the help of God, to protect the Indians and the other peoples mentioned from the cruelties of the invaders and from the greed of Christian traders.". 1 review. The focus of this day is on eradicating forms of slavery including: situations of forced labor, sexual exploitation, child labor, debt bondage, forced marriages, human trafficking, and the forced recruitment of children for use in armed conflict. 1226 AD: The legitimacy of slavery is incorporated in the Corpus Iuris Canonici, promulgated by Pope Gregory IX which remained official law of the Church until 1913. Grant was also a slave owner before, during and after the war. The pontifical decree known as "The Sublime God" has indeed had an exalted role in the cause of social justice in the New World. Thus, we see that Eugene IV and Paul III did not hesitate to condemn the forced servitude of Blacks and Indians, and they did so once such practices became known to the Holy See. author. This involves children used for economic exploitation, especially in situations when work deprives them of their childhood or their right to education; or instances that can be harmful to the child’s heath or to his or her physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Popes like Paul III did not condemn slavery as such, merely the way native slaves were acquired. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 40 million people worldwide are victims of different forms of modern slavery. The scourge of slavery has manifested itself and evolved in different ways throughout history. Search. In the light of of Pope Paul VI, and and of John Paul II, can we not hope that the shepherds of the Church will not fall into the same mistakes of their predecessors? The issue and history of slavery are quite complex. As we will see, even today many authors do not have an accurate understanding of this work. Two other bulls would be published to implement the teaching of one to impose penalties on those who fail to abide by the teaching against slavery, and a second to specify the sacramental consequences of the teaching that the Indians are true men. Every year on 2 December, the International Day for the Abolition of Slavery shines the spotlight on the atrocities of modern slavery that still exist in the world. These people are to be totally and perpetually free and are to be let go without the exaction or reception of any money.". Slavery was a deeply entrenched cultural institution. Some of its traditional forms still exist today, while others have been transformed into new ones. And they reduce them to slavery (), treating them with afflictions they would scarcely use with brute animals.". Indeed Urban, in his document , appealed to the teaching of his predecessors, particularly Paul III. In the bull of 1452, Pope Nicholas directed King Alfonso “to capture, vanquish, and subdue the Saracens, pagans, and other enemies of Christ” and “to put them into perpetual slavery, and take all their possessions and property”. The second core teaching of which follows from this is the necessity of restoring and maintaining the liberty of the Indians: "Therefore, We, . The very existence of these many papal teachings during this particular period of history is a strong indication that from the viewpoint of the Magisterium, there must have developed a moral problem of a different sort than any previously encountered. Certainly many Roman Pontiffs of glorious memory, Our Predecessors, did not fail, according to the duties of their office, to blame severely this way of acting as dangerous for the spiritual welfare of those who did such things and a shame to the Christian name.". Gregory then cited the various predecessors and their antislavery teachings, even recalling the familiar phrase in contained in the work of Paul III and his successors. Slavery and the church--Catholic Church--History. Pope Gregory XVI in 1838 (sic) condemned the slave trade, but not slavery itself" (emphasis added). Their teaching was continued by Gregory XIV in 1591 and by Urban VIII in 1639. Slavery makes us "un-dignified" because it takes way everyone's dignity.”, During an online seminar organized by the Bishops’ Conference of Argentina to observe the World Day Against Trafficking in Persons celebrated on 30 July 2020, Pope Francis, in a message delivered by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, described modern-day slavery as “a scourge that wounds the dignity of our weakest brothers and sisters” in our contemporary world “sadly marked by a utilitarian perspective that views others according to the criteria of convenience and personal gain.”. This teaching was founded in the teachings of Our Lord that all people are loved immensely by God the Father, and have received the vocation to redemption and eternal happiness in Christ the Son. Besides the quotation from Laennec Hurbon given at the beginning of this article, we may illustrate the problem by citing also the American Church historian James Hennesey, S.J. This in no way invalidates the clear and consistent teaching against the unjust slavery that came to prevail in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, first in Central and South America and then in the United States, for approximately four centuries. The date of this Bull, 1435, is very significant. All of these teachings, nonetheless, went unknown to the Catholic faithful of the U.S., perhaps through willful ignorance, or were explained away by many of the American bishops and clergy. Recently, authors such as Gustavo Gutierrez have noted this fact: 'The bull of Pope Paul III, (June 2, 1537), is regarded as the most important papal pronouncement on the human condition of the Indians." Both of the above citations prohibit the slave trade. If, however, it can be shown that the Magisterium condemned from the beginning the colonial slavery that developed in the newly discovered lands, then it may be necessary for some historians and others to revise their opinions of that teaching office, and of the Catholic Church as well. For the early 19th century, in the midst of the volatile decades before the Civil War, Gregory XVI issued , with its clear condemnation of both the slave trade and slavery itself. Other possible ways of combatting this scourge, the ILO says, include becoming informed consumers and avoiding products made by companies that use child labor or other forms of slavery, supporting local anti-trafficking efforts, and pushing for political authorities to take action to end modern slavery. From 1435 to 1890, we have numerous bulls and encyclicals from several popes written to many bishops and the whole Christian faithful condemning both slavery and the slave trade. If it was not until 1890, or even 1965, then a great shadow has indeed been cast upon the Magisterium. Using this logic, the Pope issued a mandate to the Portuguese king, Alfonso V, and instructed him: After the attack on Ceuta, the king sought papal recognition of it as a crusade. The Church and her Popes were rather among the major 'role players' in this worst crime against Black Africans in recorded history. Eugene IV was clear in his intentions both to condemn the enslavement of the residents of the Canary Islands, and to demand correction of the injustice within 15 days. Theologian Laennec Hurbon may be cited as representing a belief among many authors that no Pope before 1890 condemned slavery when he stated that, ". Those who did not restore the enslaved to their liberty in that time were to incur the sentence of excommunication ipso facto. In this article I will address three—from many more—of the responses of the papal Magisterium to the widespread enslavement that accompanied the Age of Discovery and beyond. Panzer deals at length with the attitude of the American bishops towards slavery in the United States in 1840, only twenty-three years before its abolition, when they issued a pastoral letter after their gathering in Baltimore. However Gregory was well aware that there was still much work to be done: "The slave trade, although it has been somewhat diminished, is still carried on by numerous Christians. For the Catholics of the United States—as for Catholics everywhere—there was the consistent, historical teaching of the Church, as presented through Eugene IV. . ‘Ineffabilis et summi patris’ (1 June 1497), a little-known letter from Alexander VI to Manuel i, king of Portugal (1495–1521), plays an important role in Joel Panzer's The popes and slavery (1996). It is, moreover, addressed to all of the Christian faithful in the world, and not to a particular bishop in one area, thereby not limiting its significance, but universalizing it. Thus, we can look to the practice of dissent from the teachings of the Papal Magisterium as a key reason why slavery was not directly opposed by the Church in the United States. Copyright © 2020 Eternal Word Television Network, Inc. Irondale, Alabama. 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